How can the BRCA gene status affect your health?
Everyone has BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. However, sometimes the DNA that makes up a BRCA gene may become damaged or mutated, when a mutation occurs within these genes, a person’s risk for developing specific cancers increases. A parent who has a BRCA mutation can pass this mutation along to his or her son or daughter. However, if your parent has a mutation, that doesn’t necessarily mean that you will inherit it.
If either your mother or your father has a BRCA1/2 gene mutation, you have a 50% chance of having the same mutation. If you are found to have a BRCA mutation, this does not necessarily mean you will get cancer. Still, it does mean that your risk for developing certain hereditary cancers is more significant than those who do not have a genetic mutation.
For women with a BRCA mutation, the risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer is significantly increased. They are also at a greater risk for other cancers such as pancreatic cancer and melanoma. Men with a BRCA mutation are at a greater risk of developing prostate cancer and male breast cancer, as well as other hereditary cancers, including pancreatic cancer and melanoma. In fact, according to the American Cancer Society, up to 10% of all prostate cancers are caused by inherited genes.
What other genes should I be concerned about?
The majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers have been linked to the BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes. However, other genetic mutations have been associated with increasing a person’s risk of developing cancer. The latest studies have identified that mutations in genes such as TP53, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, NBN, BARD1, BRIP1, RAD51C are also associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.
Are both men and women are at risk?
BRCA mutations can occur in both males and females and any race or ethnic group. The occurrence of mutations in the United States is about 1 in 500. However, for some ethnic groups, such as the Ashkenazi Jewish population, the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation increases to 1 in 40. See the table below.
Risk of Cancer in Individuals With a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation
General Population (No Mutation)
Individuals With The Mutation
|Prostate||15% (N. Europe Origin)||Up to 30%||Up to 39%|
|18% (African American)|
How do I reduce my risk of Breast Cancer?
If you have a family history of breast, ovarian or prostate cancer, or if you have tested positive for a genetic mutation, you may be at a higher risk for developing these cancers. Talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce your risk.
Suggestions may include:
- Increased cancer screenings or having screenings at an earlier age than what is recommended for the general population
- Taking anti-estrogens or other medicines that block or decrease the levels of estrogen in your body
- In some cases, surgery to reduce your risk of developing cancer may be recommended.
Should I get tested for BRCA1 and BRCA 2 genes?
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that primary care providers offer BRCA1/2 screening for women whose family members have had breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer to determine whether or not their family’s history indicates the possible presence of breast cancer susceptibility gene mutations (BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations).
The USPSTF also recommends against routine genetic counselling or BRCA testing for patients whose family history does not indicate any association with an increased risk of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
Reviewing your family history with your physician is the first step in determining whether or not BRCA testing would be beneficial for you. Your physician will review your family history and risk assessment with you and, if applicable, will provide a referral to a genetic counsellor for further consultation. If a determination has been made that the BRCA test is recommended based on your physician’s evaluation and a genetic counsellor’s assessment, you will be asked to sign an Informed Consent to begin the process of genetic testing at DNA labs India.
How is the BRCA gene inherited?
BRCA1 BRCA2 mutations can be passed or inherited from a mother or a father in an autosomal dominant fashion. This means that having only one copy of a BRCA1/2 mutation can increase your chance of developing certain cancers like breast and ovarian. If your mother or father carries a BRCA mutation, you have a 50% chance of inheriting that same mutation. While not everyone who inherits the BRCA mutation develops cancer, those with the mutation are considered to be at a higher risk.
If your mother or father has a BRCA mutation, but you do not, you cannot pass this mutation down to your children.
What is BRCA testing and why DNA Labs India?
BRCA is a Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based assay using a state-of-the-art platform developed exclusively at DNA labs India. This means that this type of test is highly sensitive and delivers exceptionally accurate results. In addition to testing for BRCA 1/2 genes, our DiagnoCancer NGS panel panels include several other genes that have been found to be associated with an increased risk for developing hereditary cancer.
Once you have been tested, DNA labs India shares the results with your physician and genetic counsellor in preparation for your one-on-one consultation to discuss your risk, develop a preventative action plan, and plan possible additional testing.
Will my BRCA Test results be kept Confidential?
Yes, your BRCA genetic testing results are protected under Act, a law protecting people from genetic discrimination in health insurance and employment. Before testing, DNA Labs India will also provide you with an Informed Consent form elaborating on these rights. This form must be signed before any genetic testing performed at DNA Labs India Laboratories.
Genetic testing provides you with information to help you understand the health conditions that run in your family, along with the potential risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. It is your choice to seek genetic testing and counselling to learn about any health risks without fear of discrimination and GINA protects you from that.
It is against the law for health insurers to request, require, or use a person’s genetic testing history to make decisions about insurance eligibility, premium amount, or coverage terms.
Although insurers may need to ask for genetic testing information to help approve a coverage determination, they cannot use the information to discriminate against you.
It is also illegal for employers to use genetic information to make hiring, firing, promotion, or pay rate decisions or to limit, segregate, classify, or mistreat an employee in any way.
BRCA Test Results and Interpretation
Interpretation and classification of detected variants is an assessment that incorporates various components of catalogued information from national databases as well as from published references. Variants classified within genes are reported in the following categories by the ACMG standards and guidelines:
Positive: Positive results indicate an identified genetic alteration (mutation or deletion) that is clinically significant and is either pathologic or likely pathogenic, resulting in abnormal function of coded proteins. Such mutations are associated with a significantly higher risk of developing hereditary cancers.
The variant of Unknown Significance (VUS): The variants have unknown effects on gene function, have not been previously reported or have been reported with inadequate or conflicting evidence regarding pathogenicity. The genetic change has not been scientifically linked to being an increased risk and may also be a standard variant not associated with an increased risk of developing hereditary cancers.
Negative: The variants have sufficient reported evidence and observation to be considered of no clinical significance.
The changes are classified as benign (harmless) and confer no risk associated with cancer. A negative test result could also be considered likely benign. This means the variants are strongly suggestive of not affect the gene function and are unlikely to have an increased risk for developing hereditary cancers.
Your physician or genetic counsellor will help you understand the significance of each category. If there is a strong family history of ovarian or breast cancer, other family members may also be tested by GoPath Laboratories.
What if my BRCA test is positive?
What are your options and the next steps if your test is positive? If your test is positive for a BRCA mutation or another rare gene associated with breast and ovarian cancer, your physician and a genetic counsellor will discuss several options to help reduce your risk for developing cancer.
These options may include: increased or enhanced screenings, proactive surgery, or drug therapy.
Should my family get tested? If your test is positive, your family members need to be tested. They too should discuss the importance of testing with a genetic counsellor. Testing your family members is more straightforward and less costly than initial testing because only a single, identified gene mutation needs to be tested.
Genetic counselling for BRCA Test
Your physician or a genetic counsellor will discuss your risk of BRCA1/2 mutations and give you time to visit the https://dnalabsindia.com website if the BRCA test is recommended for you. Your physician is equipped with the knowledge and understanding to help lead you in the right direction, but in the end, it is still your decision whether or not to have genetic testing.
A genetic counsellor will schedule a convenient time to discuss your medical and family history and to talk about whether BRCA is the right choice for you and other family members. A genetic counsellor is a health care professional who has an advanced degree in human genetics and genetic counselling who also has a deep understanding of the concerns and uncertainty you may have regarding genetic testing. By using educational materials and simple terms regarding your family history, you will receive an assessment and testing options.
The relationship built with a genetic counsellor is an essential part of making the right decision for you.
How does genetic counselling work?
A genetic counsellor will schedule a time to meet with you and your family members by phone and a web-based program to walk you through a series of questions regarding your medical and family history, previous cancer screenings, and to help you construct a complete family tree and risk assessment.
At the end of the session, the genetic counsellor will:
- Share the risk evaluation results and your potential for being a BRCA1/2 mutation carrier.
- Recommend genetic testing options
- Walk you through the BRCA testing process.
- The offer information on cancer screening options and cancer risk prevention measures
- Develop a management plan with your physician
After the appointment is over, a genetic counsellor will review any questions you have and discuss next steps. Moving forward with genetic testing is a personal choice, and it’s entirely your decision. Genetic counsellors are experts who can help you navigate the decision process and at the end of the session will provide you with an educational packet for you to keep. Should you decide to move forward with BRCA testing, a genetic counsellor will provide a risk assessment and recommendation to your physician. GoPath’s preauthorization team will begin the process and work with your physician’s office. Our goal is to make your genetic testing decision experience as convenient and as easy to understand as possible.
Getting started for BRCA Test
If your physician and genetic counsellor recommend moving forward with BRCA testing through DNA Labs India, these are the steps you would need to take: educate yourself on what to do with your results, speak to a genetic counsellor to confirm your decision and complete the preauthorization process to begin testing.
What type of sample are needed to do a BRCA1 BRCA2 Test?
An EDTA blood or DNA for testing can be obtained from several bodily sources. The cells are the most commonly tested are derived.
BRCA1 BRCA2 Test Sample Type: EDTA blood or DNA
How many days does it take to obtain BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test results?
Results of the BRCA1 BRCA2 test are usually available from the laboratory within 2 to 3 weeks.
How much does a BRCA1 BRCA2 genetic Test cost?
A standard BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test cost you 20000/- INR.
Why Choose DNA Labs India for BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test?
DNA labs India’s BRCA1 BRCA2 Test follows with dual testing for 100% accuracy when determining a BRCA1 BRCA2 mutation analysis.
- We are the leading lab for BRCA1 BRCA2 Testing Lab in India.
- Greater Accuracy for BRCA Test
- Free Genetic Counselling for BRCA Test
- Collection centres across India
- Outstanding customer service
- Strict privacy and confidentiality assured
- Full-service laboratories providing testing for use in complex cases
How to Schedule an Appointment for the BRCA Test?
You can either book online at the link provided. If you book and make the payment online, home collection service is offered to patients of all BRCA1 BRCA2 analysis Test free of cost.
How can I locate a BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test facility?
DNA labs India has 3000 plus sample collection centres across India for BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test.
You can choose the centre and book the BRCA1 BRCA2 somatic mutation analysis Test online. For all online bookings made and payment paid, home sample collection service is provided for BRCA1 BRCA2 Test free of cost.