It is understood that the first case of AIDS in India was reported in 1985, the number of AIDS infections has increased rapidly in more than 30 years. The route of transmission has changed from drug users sharing syringes, unsafe blood collection and sexual transmission.
From the perspective of age distribution, HIV is mainly concentrated in 20-45 years old, but it is worth noting that the number of infections among young people aged 14-20 and elderly people over 60 years old is on the rise.
However, there are still many patients who have not been detected. Data shows that as of today, about a quarter of the infected people in the country have not been tested or are unaware of their infection status. The proportion of patients with the late disease is relatively high.
Why is AIDS so terrible and what is AIDS?
AIDS, also known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV targets the human body’s immune system. Without any treatment, the immune system of people living with AIDS will be destroyed by HIV until they lose almost all their immunity.
Clinically, AIDS is generally divided into four stages:
- The Acute Infection Period
- The Incubation Period,
- The Symptomatic Period,
- The Typical AIDS onset Period.
During the acute phase of HIV infection, most people who are infected do not have symptoms, but some people who are infected have flu-like symptoms.
During the incubation period, an infected person does not have symptoms. The length of the incubation period of AIDS ranges from several months to 20 years. According to statistics, the average length of the AIDS incubation period is about 10 years.
symptomatic phase: Finally, the immune system of HIV-infected people is almost destroyed by HIV, and AIDS enters the symptomatic phase (the onset phase). Patients who lose almost all their immunity will soon die of infection or malignant tumors.
At present, with the popularization of high-efficiency antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the average life span of AIDS patients has been greatly extended, making AIDS a treatable and manageable chronic disease. At the same time, with the continuous accumulation of HIV antiviral treatment population and the extension of treatment time, major challenges such as the crisis of HIV resistance have gradually emerged.
“Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy” (HAART), commonly known as “cocktail therapy”, was proposed by scientist He Dayi in 1996 to treat AIDS through the combined use of three or more antiviral drugs. This therapy can reduce the resistance caused by a single drug, and inhibit the replication of the virus to the greatest extent, thereby delaying the progression of the disease, prolonging the life of the patient, and improving the quality of life. As of the end of June 2019, 24.5 million HIV-infected and AIDS patients around the world have received antiretroviral treatment and have made great public health achievements.
However, there is also a huge risk of the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains.
Why does drug resistance occur?
HIV is a retrovirus that lacks error correction function and is in high-speed replication. About 1 billion new viruses are produced every day, leading to high mutations and new virus strains. After antiviral treatment, if you don’t take the medicine properly, the virus cannot be completely controlled. In the presence of the drug, the drug-resistant strains will multiply because of the advantage of “survival of the fittest”, resulting in resistance. Once drug resistance develops, the previously used drugs will lose their antiviral effects. Therefore, the number of viruses in the body will become higher and higher, destroying the body’s immunity and causing the onset of AIDS.
HIV drug resistance is mainly divided into 2 Type :
- Primary Drug Resistance
- Secondary Drug Resistance.
Primary drug resistance: refers to the presence of drug-resistant mutations or direct infection with drug-resistant strains before receiving antiviral treatment.
Secondary drug resistance: refers to the occurrence of drug-resistant mutations in the virus during the antiviral treatment process, which reduces the sensitivity of the strain to the drug. It is generally caused by improper treatment (incorrect dosage, incorrect usage, or irregular medication).
How to detect the resistance of HIV virus?
Drug resistance testing is a good way to help select antiviral treatment options, which can detect potential drug-resistant patients earlier, improve the treatment effect, and reduce the spread of drug-resistant viruses. It is very important for the long-term management of AIDS.
HIV resistance detection methods mainly include 2 types:
- Phenotypic resistance detection
- Genotypic resistance detection.
The phenotypic drug resistance test: is based on in vitro culture technology, which determines the degree of drug resistance of the virus by detecting the reproduction of the virus in the presence of the drug.
Genotype resistance detection: is a method of amplification and sequencing of resistance-related genes, using the drug resistance genotype interpretation system to determine whether and the degree of resistance.
How to test the effect of AIDS treatment?
At present, the therapeutic effect of AIDS patients can be evaluated mainly through changes in HIV load and the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes.
Drug resistance caused by HIV drug resistance gene mutations is the main reason for inhibiting the efficacy of antiviral drugs. With the widespread usage of anti-HIV drugs in India, drug-resistant strains against certain drugs have emerged.
The further spread of drug-resistant strains can lead to a decrease in the sensitivity of antiviral drugs and the decline or failure of antiviral treatments. Therefore, the analysis and detection of virus resistance are important indicators to guide the rational use of drugs is highly recommended.
At present, second-generation gene sequencing technology has been applied in the detection of AIDS resistance. According to foreign experience, the second-generation sequencing technology can effectively improve the sensitivity of the test and reduce the manual operation (total less than 2 hours) and the test cycle ( 48 hours). Second-generation sequencing also has higher requirements for laboratory personnel and requires a good ability to interpret the results.
Since 2017, DNA Labs India has started collecting and identification of 1000 drug-resistant strains from people infected with different sources of infection in more than 10,000 cities across India.
According to the principles of international treatment of AIDS:
- Diagnosis and find HIV patient
- Identify the HIV virus as drug resistance
- Administer the precise medication(personalized medicine),
DNA labs India will complete the drug resistance test and recommend drugs that are highly sensitive with the least side effects.