Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test Details:
Immune cells in the uterus are important in the early detection and elimination of foreign cells, such as infections or cancer. These immune cells are generally present in every person as part of their immune system.
Women who have fertility problems, specifically miscarriage or unsuccessful IVF, are more likely to have higher levels of activity of these ‘Natural Killer cells’ [NK cells] than other women. Elevated natural killer cell activity is a form of immunological infertility.
What this means for treatment is still not clear, but several different treatments are being trialled. NK Cells is an area of research being undertaken at IVFAustralia for patients who have experienced repeated miscarriage or repeated IVF failure.
What are Natural Killer Cells?
Natural Killer (NK) Cells are lymphocytes in the same family as T and B cells, coming from a common progenitor. However, as cells of the innate immune system, NK cells are classified as group I Innate Lymphocytes (ILCs) and respond quickly to a wide variety of pathological challenges.
NK cells are best known for killing virally infected cells and detecting and controlling early signs of cancer. As well as protecting against disease, specialized NK cells are also found in the placenta and may play an important role in pregnancy.
Development and Functional Maturation:
Natural killer cells were initially thought to develop exclusively in the BM. However, recent evidence in humans and mice suggests that they can also develop and mature in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) including tonsils, spleen, and LNs.
The cellular progenitors and intermediate populations that give rise to NK cells are defined by the differential expression of lineage-specific surface markers. Natural killer cells represent 5–20% of circulating lymphocytes in humans. The percentages of NK cells among lymphocytes ranges between about 2–5% in the spleens and BMs of inbred laboratory mice and about twice that number in wild-caught mice.
NK cells are most similar to a group of lymphocytes known as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are further categorized into three distinct groups and are present in both humans and mice. NK cells are related to group 1 ILCs as both produce interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α upon stimulation.
NK Cells and Cancer:
In vitro studies using cells from humans and several other mammalian species, as well as in vivo studies in mice and rats, have long suggested that tumour cells are recognized as NK cell targets.
The in vivo analyses relied on antibody-mediated depletion of NK cells in mice, targeting either NK or the glycolipid asialo-GM. However, NK cell depletion with antibodies to NK may also affect populations of invariant natural killer T cells and other NK + T cell populations.
In vitro studies using cells from humans and several other mammalian species, as well as in vivo studies in mice and rats, have long suggested that tumour cells are recognized as NK cell targets. The in vivo analyses relied on antibody-mediated depletion of NK cells in mice, targeting either NK1.1 or the glycolipid asialo-GM1. However, NK cell depletion with antibodies to NK1.1 may also affect populations of invariant natural killer T cells and other NK1.1+ T cell populations.
NK Cells and Viruses:
Infection by many viruses, such as herpes simplex virus-1, influenza virus or the ectromelia poxvirus, can be controlled by NK cells in mice. Yet the most compelling evidence for a role for NK cells in early defence against viruses was obtained in a study showing increased susceptibility or resistance to the herpesvirus MCMV after NK cell depletion or NK cell adoptive transfer, respectively.
Only a few cases of selective NK cell deficiencies have been reported in humans, but most of these are consistent with a role for NK cells in defence against human herpesvirus infections. The participation of mouse NK cells in the control of herpesviruses in experimental conditions seems to hold true in humans in a natural environment.
Role in the Innate Immune System:
Natural killer cells are initially developed within the primary lymphoid tissue of the bone marrow, where they undergo positive and negative selection to remove self-targeting cells. Once they have matured, they move to secondary lymphoid tissues to undergo terminal maturation.
Over 20 activating receptors are known that function to recognize proteins that are not usually present on the surface of a cell. Inhibitory receptors mainly recognize self MHC I proteins.
What type of sample are needed to do a Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test?
A Peripheral Blood EDTA Vacutainer 3ml Ambient for testing can be obtained from several natural sources. The cells are the most commonly tested are derived.
Standard Biological Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test Samples: Peripheral Blood EDTA Vacutainer 3ml Ambient
How accurate is Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test?
Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test is generally considered to be the most accurate testing method available. DNA Labs India’s Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test is regarded as a benchmark by most doctors. The most precise and accurate Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test in India.
How many days does it take to obtain Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test results?
Results of the Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test test are usually available from the laboratory within one week to 5 weeks.
For a standard Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test, DNA Labs India returns Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test results in 7 to 10 business days once all samples are received at the lab.
DNA Labs India understands that waiting for Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test results for this potentially life-changing test is stressful, so we provide speedy service without sacrificing accuracy.
Once complete, the results are posted immediately to our secure online portal, and you will be notified by email right away.
Can the Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test be done during pregnancy?
Prenatal Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test is a sensitive subject because of the ethical and legal issues involved, including the risks of an invasive test. It would be best if you talked with your doctor.
How much does a Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test cost?
A standard Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test cost you 10000/- INR.
Why Choose DNA Labs India for Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test?
DNA labs India’s Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test follows with dual testing for 100% accuracy when determining a Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test.
- We are the leading lab for Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test in India.
- Greater Accuracy
- Collection centres across India
- Outstanding customer service
- Strict privacy and confidentiality assured
- Full-service laboratories providing testing for use in complex cases
How to Schedule an Appointment for Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test?
You can either book online at the link provided. If you book and make the payment online, free home collection service is provided to patients of all Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test.
How can I locate a Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test facility?
DNA labs India has 3000 plus sample collection centres across India for Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test.
You can choose the centre and book the Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test online. For all online bookings made and payment paid, a free home sample collection service is provided.
List of Natural Killer NK Cell Testing Test collection centres in India are Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Jaipur, Visakhapatnam, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Thane, Bhopal, Indore, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Patna, Vadodara, Ghaziabad, Ludhiana, Agra, Nashik, Faridabad, Meerut, Rajkot, Kalyan-Dombivli, Vasai-Virar, Varanasi, Srinagar, Aurangabad, Dhanbad, Amritsar, Navi, Mumbai, Allahabad, Howrah, Ranchi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Coimbatore, Vijayawada, Jodhpur, Madurai, Raipur, Chandigarh, Guntur, Guwahati, Solapur, Hubli–Dharwad, Mysore, Tiruchirappalli, Bareilly, Moradabad, Tiruppur, Gurgaon, Aligarh, Jalandhar, Bhubaneswar, Salem, Mira-Bhayandar, Warangal, Jalgaon, Kota, Bhiwandi, Saharanpur, Gorakhpur, Bikaner, Amravati, Noida, Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Cuttack, Firozabad, Kochi, Nellore, Bhavnagar, Dehradun, Durgapur, Asansol, Rourkela, Nanded, Kolhapur, Ajmer, Akola