What is Karyotyping
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What is Karyotyping
Karyotyping is a genetic test used to study an individual’s chromosomes. Every individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes in our body, if there is one less or more chromosome in an individual, it creates genetic anomalies causing various genetic diseases. Karyotyping is used to diagnose genetic diseases, some birth defects, and certain disorders of the blood or lymphatic system.
What is Chromosomes?
Chromosomes are thread-like structures within each cell's nucleus and are made up of the DNA genetic blueprint of the human body. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes in specific locations. These genes are responsible for a person's inherited physical characteristics like hair colour, height, skin colour, eye colour etc. and they have a profound impact on growth, development, and function.
Humans have 46 chromosomes, present as 23 pairs. Twenty-two pairs are found in both sexes and are called autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes are present as either XY in males or XX in females. A normal human body contains a complete set of same 46 chromosomes in all the cell's nucleus a protective locker in cells of all genetic information. This is except for the reproductive cells like eggs and sperm, which contain half of 46 chromosomes i.e., both egg and sperm. This half set is the genetic contribution that will be passed on to a child. At conception, half sets from each parent combine together to form a new set of 46 chromosomes in the baby.
What type of changes happens in a chromosome?
Chromosomal abnormalities include both numerical and structural changes.
Numerical changes, change in no. of chromosomes, anything other than a complete set of 46 chromosomes represents a change in the amount of genetic material present and can cause health and development problems.
Structural changes, change in structure by shortening and lengthening of size, the significance of the problems and their severity depends upon the chromosome that is altered as thousands of genes are present on them. The type and degree of the problem may vary from person to person, even when the same chromosome abnormality is present.
What type of samples are used for testing?
Almost any cells could be used to perform testing, in practice, it is usually performed on
- Amniotic fluid
- lymphocytes (white blood cells)
- Blood sample to test all other ages
- White blood cells may be obtained from bone marrow
How the test is performed?
- Isolating the chromosomes from the nucleus of the cells, placing them on a slide, and treating them with a special stain.
- Taking microphotographs of the chromosomes.
- In jigsaw puzzle fashion, rearranging the pictures of the chromosomes to match up pairs and arrange them by size, from largest to smallest, numbers 1 to 22, followed by the sex chromosomes as the 23rd pair.
- Chromosomes microphotographs are vertically oriented. Each chromosome looks like a striped straw. It has two arms that differ in length (a short arm (p) and a long arm (q)), a pinched-in area between the arms called a centromere, and a series of light and dark horizontal bands. The length of the arms and the location of the bands help determine top from bottom.
- Once the chromosome photo arrangement is completed, a laboratory specialist evaluates the chromosome pairs and identifies any abnormalities that may be present.
Where can I get the Karyotyping DNA test done in India
DNA Labs India is a leading molecular diagnostic company dedicated to making a difference in patient’s lives through the discovery and commercialization of transformative tests to assess a person’s risk of developing disease, guide treatment decisions and assess the risk of disease progression and recurrence.
How can I test for Karyotyping DNA Test?
Visit the website www.dnalabsindia.com, for any DNA test. We can help you get your DNA test done. We have services in over 180 cities in India. Call us on the below mention no.s or visit our sample collection centre nearby your location.
It is safe, secure, confidential and best of all, an easy process. Avoid the hassle of one day off from your work, Traffic, Pollution. Our Highly Qualified sample collector will Visit your Home for Sample Collection as per your Convenient Time slot booked by you.
To know more about the test or to schedule a test, contact us on the following no. for major metropolitan cities
New Delhi: (011) 40849842
Mumbai : (022) 48937160
Kolkata : (033) 40836441
Chennai : (044) 48137110
Bangalore : (080) 45684079
Hyderabad : (040) 49171772
Ahmedabad : (079) 49107674